Here on HTW, we’ve spent considerable time and effort exploring the complexities of Section 1031 tax deferred exchanges. And this is for good reason: if performed correctly, a 1031 like-kind exchange can be an extremely useful wealth maximization tool. Like-kind exchanges not only allow taxpayers to defer the capital gain taxes which would normally be owed, they also allow more capital to be reinvested in the newly acquired property, and this leads to even greater returns. In other words, Section 1031 doesn’t just permit tax deferral, it allows your capital to work more effectively on your behalf. The clear financial benefits of Section 1031 explain the impressive rise in popularity of these transactions in recent years.
As if the existing complexity of 1031 were insufficient, it turns out that there are variations on the standard like-kind exchange which taxpayers may choose to conduct. One of these variations is known as a “reverse exchange.” Given the advantages which this variation can confer in certain contexts, reverse exchanges have become increasingly common. Let’s look more closely at the mechanics of reverse exchanges and then discuss some of the unique benefits of this type of transaction.
In a standard – or “delayed” – exchange, the original property owned by the taxpayer is disposed of prior to the acquisition of the replacement property. In a reverse exchange, the order is flipped, and the replacement property is acquired first and the original property (the “relinquished property”) is sold subsequent to the acquisition of the replacement property. Superficially, this process seems simple, but other aspects of this variation make it considerably more complicated than a standard exchange.
Under current tax law, taxpayers are not permitted to simultaneously hold title to both the relinquished property and the replacement property. This makes intuitive sense, because simultaneous ownership of both properties would conflict with the basic exchange concept. In order to solve this problem, the entity facilitating the exchange for the taxpayer – referred to as the “qualified intermediary” – develops a separate corporate entity which exists solely to temporarily hold title to the replacement property prior to the disposition of the relinquished property. In 1031 nomenclature, the replacement property is “parked” in the entity and then title to the replacement property is transferred to the taxpayer after the relinquished property is sold. This parking arrangement has been approved by the IRS; in fact, the IRS has issued specific guidelines regarding the mechanics of these transactions.
Reverse exchanges also require more documentation and preparatory work compared to standard exchanges. The fees for these transactions are typically much higher given the additional complexity involved.
Reverse exchanges carry unique benefits for investors. Perhaps the most important of these benefits is the timing of the acquisition of the replacement property. The impetus for a reverse exchange usually relates to the desirability of the replacement property; the investor needs to close on the replacement property immediately, or else face the possibility of either losing it to another investor or receiving inferior financing. In some cases, investors know exactly which replacement property they want to acquire and simply haven’t arranged a buyer for their replacement property; but in many other cases, reverse exchanges are a response to market trends.
Another key benefit of reverse exchanges is the effective elimination of the identification requirement. In standard exchanges, replacement property ordinarily must be identified within 45 days after the closing of the relinquished property; reverse exchanges solve this issue from the outset because the replacement property is acquired first. Though it may seem like an easy enough rule to comply with, more than a few exchanges have failed simply because the investor could not properly identify a new property within the specific time window.
There’s much, much more to reverse exchanges, but this serves as a good introduction. In the future, we will go over the structure of reverse exchanges in greater detail and discuss further why they are uniquely beneficial for investors in many cases.